Key Components of Tax Due Diligence In M&A Transactions

Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) transactions are critical to corporate strategy, offering opportunities for growth, diversification, and market expansion. However, these transactions come with inherent risks, particularly in the realm of taxation. Tax due diligence is essential in identifying and mitigating these risks, ensuring that both parties have a clear understanding of potential tax liabilities and implications. It is also an important component of business valuation in M&A transactions as it helps identify and evaluate the potential tax liabilities and risks associated with the target company.

In Singapore, where the regulatory environment is robust and dynamic, tax due diligence plays a pivotal role in the M&A process.

Understanding tax due diligence

Tax due diligence in the context of M&A involves a comprehensive review of a target company’s tax affairs. This review aims to identify any existing or potential tax risks and liabilities that could affect the transaction’s value. The process involves examining various tax aspects, including corporate tax, Goods and Services Tax (GST), transfer pricing, and compliance with local tax regulations.

Key components of tax due diligence

1. Corporate income tax review

The primary focus of tax due diligence is the corporate income tax position of the target company. This includes analysing tax returns, tax assessments, and any correspondence with the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS). It also involves assessing the company’s tax compliance status, identifying any unpaid taxes, and evaluating the impact of any tax incentives or exemptions the company has utilised.

2. Tax health check and proper valuation

Tax due diligence also provides an assessment of a company’s overall tax health, offering potential investors confidence in the company’s compliance with Singapore’s tax laws and regulations. By evaluating the company’s adherence to tax obligations, due diligence helps ascertain the level of compliance risk. Moreover, an accurate depiction of potential tax liabilities allows for a more precise valuation of the company. This clarity is invaluable during sale and purchase negotiations, facilitating fair and informed decision-making.

3. Indirect taxes: GST and customs duties

Indirect taxes such as GST and customs duties can significantly impact the cost structure of a business. During tax due diligence, it is crucial to review the target company’s GST filings, customs documentation, and any disputes or audits related to these taxes. Ensuring that the company has correctly accounted for and remitted GST and customs duties helps prevent potential liabilities post-transaction.

4. Transfer Pricing compliance

Transfer pricing is a critical area in Singapore due to its stringent regulations. The due diligence process includes reviewing the target company’s transfer pricing policies, documentation, and any transactions with related parties. Ensuring compliance with Singapore’s transfer pricing guidelines helps avoid potential penalties and adjustments that could affect the company’s financial health.

5. Withholding tax obligations

Reviewing withholding tax obligations is another key component. This involves examining payments to non-residents for services, interest, royalties, and dividends to ensure proper withholding tax has been applied and remitted. Non-compliance can result in significant penalties and interest charges.

6. Tax losses and incentives

Analysing the utilisation and availability of tax losses and incentives is crucial. The due diligence process should verify the legitimacy and future usability of any tax losses carried forward and the continued availability of tax incentives. This assessment ensures that the buyer can benefit from these tax attributes post-acquisition.

7. Historical tax liabilities

Historical tax liabilities can significantly impact the transaction. The due diligence process should include a thorough review of any outstanding tax liabilities, disputes, or audits. Understanding these liabilities helps in negotiating indemnities and warranties in the transaction agreement.

8. International tax considerations

For companies with cross-border operations, international tax considerations become vital. The review should include an assessment of the target company’s international tax compliance, including Controlled Foreign Corporation (CFC) rules, double tax treaties, and any potential exposure to foreign taxes.

Benefits of Tax Due Diligence

Conducting thorough tax due diligence provides several benefits:

Risk Mitigation: Identifying potential tax risks and liabilities helps in mitigating them through appropriate indemnities or purchase price adjustments.

Informed Decision-Making: It enables buyers to make informed decisions by understanding the true tax position of the target company.

Negotiation Leverage: Detailed knowledge of the target’s tax affairs provides leverage during negotiations, allowing buyers to seek price reductions or other favourable terms.

Compliance Assurance: Ensures that the target company complies with all applicable tax laws and regulations, reducing the risk of future disputes with tax authorities.


Tax due diligence is an indispensable part of the M&A process. It helps uncover potential tax risks and liabilities, ensuring that both parties can negotiate and structure the transaction effectively. By conducting thorough tax due diligence, companies can achieve a smoother transaction process and a more secure post-acquisition integration. Engaging experienced tax advisors with local expertise is essential to navigate the complexities of Singapore’s tax landscape, ensuring a comprehensive and effective due diligence process.

Max Lewis offers various corporate services, from transfer pricing services to asset valuation. Max Lewis Consultants is a proud recipient of the Best Intellectual Property Rights Valuation Firm South East Asia at the APAC Insider Business Awards 2022. This award cements our position as a leading intellectual property rights valuation firm in Singapore and South East Asia. Our firm is also featured in GoBusiness Singapore as a tax advisory and valuation service provider. The platform connects business owners to various Government e-services and resources. Contact us today to learn more about or array of services.

*The above represents our views and opinions and does not necessarily reflect the position of any entities mentioned.