The Importance Of Contemporaneous TP Documentation

The transfer of goods, services, and intellectual property across borders is a common occurrence. However, the prices at which these transfers occur, known as transfer prices, can significantly impact a company’s tax liability and financial performance. To ensure fairness and transparency in these transactions, tax authorities worldwide, including the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS), require businesses to maintain contemporaneous transfer pricing documentation. For businesses operating in Singapore, seeking professional transfer pricing services in Singapore is essential to navigate the complex regulations and compliance requirements set forth by IRAS.

Below, we will explore the significance of contemporaneous transfer pricing documentation and why it matters for multinational enterprises operating in Singapore.

What is Contemporaneous Transfer Pricing Documentation?

Contemporaneous transfer pricing documentation refers to the comprehensive records and documentation that a multinational enterprise (MNE) maintains to justify the prices charged in its cross-border transactions with related parties. These related parties can include subsidiaries, affiliates, or other entities within the MNE group. Contemporaneous documentation is intended to demonstrate that the transfer prices are consistent with the arm’s length principle, which requires that prices for these transactions be in line with what unrelated parties would pay for similar transactions under similar circumstances.

One key aspect of contemporaneous transfer pricing documentation is its timing. As per IRAS guidelines and international best practices, transfer pricing documentation should be prepared contemporaneously, meaning it should be current as of the time the related-party transactions occur. In Singapore, this requirement has been emphasised, starting from Year of Assessment (YA) 2019, which corresponds to financial years beginning on or after December 31, 2018.

Why Contemporaneous Documentation Matters

1. Compliance with Regulations

The foremost reason for maintaining contemporaneous transfer pricing documentation is to comply with tax regulations. Failure to do so can lead to significant penalties, as outlined in IRAS guidelines. Tax authorities worldwide are increasingly focused on transfer pricing, and non-compliance can lead to audits, disputes, and financial penalties.

2. Enhanced transparency

Contemporaneous documentation enhances transparency and accountability in transfer pricing practices. It provides a clear record of how transfer prices were determined and the factors considered in making those determinations. This transparency can be vital in demonstrating compliance with the arm’s length principle.

3. Risk mitigation

By preparing contemporaneous documentation, MNEs can proactively address transfer pricing risks. It allows them to identify and rectify any issues or inconsistencies before they come under scrutiny by tax authorities. This proactive approach can help avoid costly disputes and penalties.

4. Efficient audits

In the event of a tax audit or inquiry, having contemporaneous transfer pricing documentation readily available can significantly expedite the process. It demonstrates to tax authorities that the MNE has taken compliance seriously and can help resolve issues more efficiently.

5. Stakeholder confidence

Contemporaneous documentation can also instil confidence in stakeholders, including investors, shareholders, and lenders. It shows that the MNE is managing its transfer pricing practices diligently and in accordance with tax laws.

Penalties for non-compliance

Penalties for non-compliance with contemporaneous transfer pricing documentation requirements are a critical aspect that businesses must be acutely aware of. In Singapore, effective from the Year of Assessment (YA) 2019, the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS) has instituted penalties to enforce compliance. Failure to prepare transfer pricing documentation in accordance with the prescribed timing or content, failure to submit the documentation within 30 days of a request by IRAS, failure to retain transfer pricing documentation for at least five years or the provision of any documentation that is found to be false or misleading can result in penalties.

These penalties can be substantial, with fines reaching up to $10,000 for each offence. It is paramount for multinational enterprises to understand that these penalties are not just financial burdens but can also lead to reputational damage and increased scrutiny from tax authorities. Thus, maintaining rigorous contemporaneous transfer pricing documentation is not only a matter of compliance but also a strategic approach to mitigate risks and uphold the integrity of cross-border transactions.


In Singapore and across the globe, tax authorities are increasingly focused on transfer pricing, making it essential for businesses to prioritise accurate and timely documentation. By understanding the importance of contemporaneous transfer pricing documentation and adhering to best practices, MNEs can navigate the complex landscape of international taxation with confidence and compliance.

Max Lewis provides various services, from GST Assisted Self-Help Kit reviews to employee shares option plans in Singapore. We received highly acclaimed awards, such as the Best Transfer Pricing Advisory Specialists – Singapore award at the APAC Insider Southeast Asia Business Awards 2022. We are also a proud recipient of the Best Transfer Pricing Consultancy Firm of the Year award at the Corporate LiveWire Global Awards. Contact us now to explore the wide range of services we offer.

*The above represents our opinions and views and does not necessarily reflect the position of any entities mentioned.